The influence of social factors on the individual experience of pain

Ethnicity and family therapy. There is a specific, often standardized way of signaling both verbally and non-verbally, that the person is in pain or discomfort.

Thus, compensatory behaviors, initiated in response to symptoms and altered functioning, also affect subsequent functioning. How might psychology be utilized to improve care?

Cultural Influences on Pain

It is demonstrated that people from ethnic groups receive less provision of preventative health care, provision of medication and secondary referrals than host nationals. The test-retest reliability as well as the internal consistency of the modified GREP was fair-to-good.

In a study focusing on ethnic variations in pain tolerance among South Asian males and White British males the results indicated South Asian males had significantly lower thermal pain thresholds and experienced higher pain intensity than White males.

Pain and illness can also be used, often without awareness, to avoid intimacy Roy, ; Waring, Yet, such information is never appropriate for prediction in individual instances and should not be used in this way.

By focusing narrowly on patients' bodily complaints, by ordering numerous tests to try to confirm a physical diagnosis, and by questioning the validity of patients' complaints that are not clearly accounted for by a diagnosis, health care professionals may encourage the conscious or unconscious elaboration of symptoms Barsky, see Chapter J Law Med Ethics ; Social psychological factors affecting the presentation of bodily complaints.

Personal control over aversive stimuli and its relationship to stress. It replicated this pattern in finding heightened pain reactions among mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong relative to Hong Kong Chinese students.

Pain and illness behaviour: International Journal of Family Therapy 6: We found support for the validity and reliability of two novel questionnaires designed to measure expectations regarding sensitivity to pain and willingness to report pain based on race and age.

In the course of our daily lives we constantly interpret bodily sensations and assign meaning to them, often without being aware of it Pennebaker, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Pub. The concept of illness behavior. The hypothesis that pain is an illness behavior learned in the family is less controversial than the genetic hypothesis.

Indeed, we emphasize how psychological factors may contribute not only to the experience of acute pain but also to the development of chronic pain and disability over time.

The Influence of Cognitive Processes on Pain Perception

Gender stereotyping and nursing care. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. The three pain expectation measures investigated in the current study could be used in future work examining biases in pain assessment and treatment.

The relationship of sex and clinical pain to experimental pain responses. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 1: Pain response in Negro and White obstetrical patients.

Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review After physical exertion, for example, our increased respiratory rates, difficulty breathing, muscle fatigue, and the like may be experienced as discomfort or even as pain, but they are unlikely to be perceived as "symptoms.

Somatization in this perspective is not an abnormal process but a mode of attempted adaptation to the social environment and a mode created and made available by the culture or social group, not by the individual. Thus, illness behavior is a dynamic response to changing bodily sensations.

J Emerg Nurs ; Because psychological processes have an influence on both the experience of pain and the treatment outcome, the integration of psychological principles into physical therapy treatment would seem to have potential to enhance outcomes.

One of the most influential models to explain psychological factors in the experience of pain has been the. Although pain is subjective, it does not occur in isolation, and we are currently examining social-contextual influences, and how these may influence individual differences in pain.

For example, we are currently developing our interests in the nonverbal communication of pain in men and women. The pain experience is therefore shaped by a dynamic interplay between physiological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.

14 For example, heightened pain reactions have been found among individuals of Asian ethnicity relative to those of European.

The pain experience and sociocultural factors

Pain is a private experience, however pain behaviour is influenced by social, cultural and psychological factors. It is these factors that influence whether private pain is translated into pain behaviour, the form this behaviour takes, and the social setting in which it occurs 6.

One of the most influential models to explain psychological factors in the experience of pain has been the fear-avoidance model, which was advanced to explain how patients with an acute or subacute pain condition might transition over time to a chronic state of depression, disability, and inactivity–39 The essential elements of the fear-avoidance model are shown in Figure 2.

A specific emotion regulation. Over the past 20 years, our understanding of social factors on pain experience has increased. Keogh E. Psychosocial factors and their influence on the experience of pain: response to commentary.

PAIN Reports e Pain is a dichotomous phenomenon. A true double-edged sword, it can protect us from injury in the short term, but can also.

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The influence of social factors on the individual experience of pain
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